Sunday, August 7, 2011

Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovaries are one endokrinopati most often affects many women. Marked with eight or more peripheral ovarian cysts, with a diameter of 10 mm or less. The ring is formed of cysts is called the "black pearl necklace". These cysts consist of preovulatory follicles follicles that have undergone atresia (degeneration). In women suffering from polycystic ovaries, ovarian intact and responsive to FSH and LH, but not ovulation ovum. FSH levels below normal during the follicular stage of menstrual cycle, while LH levels higher than normal, but showed no spikes. Research shows that the imbalance between FSH and LH cause abnormalities "pulse generator" GnRH in the hypothalamus that control the rate of release of GnRH pulses. The rate of GnRH pulses, in turn, determines the release of FH associated with LH from the anterior pituitary.

Finally, LH continuing high increases the formation of androgens and estrogens by the follicular and adrenal glands. Anovulatory follicles degenerate and form a cyst, which led to the PCO. This disorder is associated with the characteristics of hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation and unexplained. Diagnosis is done by observation at the time of surgery, bimanual examination, histopathology, and high-resolution ultrasound transvagina.

Other disorders with different degrees, polycystic ovarian syndrome (polycystic ovarian syndrome, PCOS), usually in the form of polycystic ovary plus a series of other symptoms such as obesity, insulin resistance, and androgen excess are characterized by hirsute (male secondary sexual characters perkembangari). Insulin resistance is often accompanied by elevated levels of insulin, the events that worsen the symptoms of PCOS, because insulin works synergistically with LH to increase the formation of androgens by theca cells. In addition, insulin lowers sex hormone binding globulin formation by the liver, an important protein that binds testosterone in the blood. This type of protein decreased to nimbulkan increase testosterone not bound and biologically active (free), thus worsening the symptoms of PCOS. Polycystic ovary syndrome can occur simultaneously with or increase the risk of diabetes.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is estimated to attack 5% to 10% female population, 30% to 40% of them were damaged glucose tolerance, and 10% suffer from type 2 diabetes at the age of 40 years. Risk factors include genetic predisposition. Obesity is often accompanied or preceded by PCOS.


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